The reasoning of persons under the formal operational stage, usually adolescents and older, may be wide-ranged but these thoughts may not be synthesized and expressed in an organized way.
The fifth stage of Piaget’s cognitive stages I might suggest is what I would call organized operational stage where logic or reasoning is organized into more practical and systematic forms. This is theoretically manifested in adults aged 23 and above.
Different, sometimes opposing, thoughts typically cloud an adult’s mind whenever he encounters problems or issues but then this proposed fifth stage explains why most people tend to reason in variable numbers and according to categories. Through experiences gained along the course of life, we can say that adults tend to develop a mechanism of organizing his knowledge into certain categories. These categories are various perspectives critically used during cognitive processes. These include biological, social, moral, psychological, cultural, and spiritual categories of logical thinking and reasoning. The ideals, cultural beliefs and practices, and how the person was brought up may shape the person’s concept of each of these categories.
In addition to this, adults at this proposed fifth stage is more likely to consider feasible and realistic options rather than too hypothetical and imaginary choices. This is because people are now able to sort things in a systematic fashion and choose among the numerous perspectives the most practical and reasonable.
Theoretically, this proposed stage has a number of drawbacks regardless of its improvements from formal
operational stage. Adults at this stage may have reduced memory retention and loss of imaginative skills, although they have the highest degree of reasoning as suggested. Perhaps because of the integrated and systematic form of reasoning, memory skills are lowered. They usually have the tendency to forget things. Also, their minds become dull and preoccupied with figures and matters of consequences that they lose their imagination and settle for realistic thoughts.